Surakarta or Solo is one of two sultanate of Java, with all the traditions and customs of the kingdom which is the center of Hindu–Javanese culture. Not only the residence of the king’s palace, but also the center of government, religion and culture are reflected in the art of the region, especially in the nature of batik: motifs, colors and usage rules. In Solo there are some specific rules on the use of batik, include: tsosial status of the wearer and special events where the batik should be used in conjunction with the hope or blessing symbolized through batik design.Solo batik designs are often associated with Hindu Javanese culture, Sawat symbol of the crown or highest power, Meru symbol of mountain or the earth, a symbol of the water dragon, symbol Birds of wind or upper world and the symbol of fire Tongues of Fire. Beberapadesain traditionally used in important events, for example: Satria Manah and Cement Chain worn during the wedding ceremony application.Design Fabrics made in workshops Panembahan length Hardjonagoro, Surakarta in the early ’80s, the combined effects of multiple patterned areas, but the overall design style and color typical of Solo. Cloth fabric is twice the length of half a meter, which is used as a formal gloves.
It has a close relation with Majapahit Kingdom development and Islamic spreading in java. In many cases, most of batik development occurred in Mataram period, Solo and Yogyakarta Kingdom. Therefore, it has been known since the period of Majapahit Kingdom and it keep on improving for the next kings.
Meanwhile, in the end of 18th centuries or in the beginning of 19th centuries, batik has been dominated by Indonesian people, especially by Javanese. In the beginning of 20th centuries, they produced handwritten batik while stamp batik had just been known in 1920. Related to Islamic spreading, most of the batik shopping center was located in Islamic regions and it was used to struggle against the Dutch economy.
Batik art is a painting art on the material. It had a function to be a costume worn by the princes in the past. For the first time, it has just been produced in the palace area and it was worn by the prince, his family and his companions. Then, it was brought and processed outside because many of the companions lived out of the palace area. Not long afterward, it was imitated by the closest people and then it became a livelihood for many housewives to spend their leisure time. Finally, batik was not only worn by prince and his family but also for common people, both man and woman. Furthermore, the batik material is made by weaving. For the dye material, it came from Indonesian natural plants such as: Bengkudu tree, tinggi, soga and nila. The soda material made of ash soda while its salt made of mud.