Batik Development At Other Cities

Batik Banyumas

After war in 1830, Dipenogoro’s companions presented batik in Sokaraja -batik center in Banyumas and the place where Najendra, one of Diponegoro’s companion improved dip batik- the unbleached plain cloth used was self weaving product and the dye used was tom tree, pace tree and bengkudu tree on which they gave red and yellow color. From time to time, Batik production had been developed in Sokaraja. In the end of 19th centuries, they made a direct partnership with batik maker from Solo and Ponorogo. Batik production area that was placed in Banyumas had been known since many years ago. It was because of its design and specific color. To day people call it in Batik Banyumas. After World War I, Chinese was not only became a batik trader but also material batik trader.

So did batik production in Pekalongan. It was spread to other regions: Buaran, Pekajangan and Wonopringgo. Batik production of those areas was not too long from which on other cities. It was about 19th centuries. Meanwhile, Yogyakarta and Solo batik development and other regions had a close relation to historical development of Yogya and Solo kingdom.

After the end of Diponegoro’s war, the family of kingdom moved on out of Yogya  – because of their unwilling to cooperate with the Dutch colonial- and batik had become popular and become a livelihood then. In this new region, the design had been adjusted with surrounding enviroment.

By considering its process and design, pekalongan batik was fully influenced by batik of demak. In the beginning of 20th centuries, the popular batik process was handwritten batik. Its unbleached plain cloth was made of both domestic and import product. After World War I, stamp batik and the use of foreign drugs –made of Germany and England- had just been known.

In the beginning of 20th centuries, the weaving, that produced a cummerbund whose thread twined in a simple way, were found in Pekajangan for the first time. A few years later, batik has just been known. It was processed by the employees working in weaving sector. Batik kept on developing faster than cummerbund weaving. Furthermore, most of employees of sugar factory in Wonopringgo and Tirto had ever moved on batik companies because of its higher salary.

Batik Tegalan


In the end of 19th centuries, batik was known in Tegal. The material used was domestic product taken from various trees: bengkudu, nila, soga tree. For its weaving, it was self product. For the first time, the color of Tegal batik was sogan and gray babaran. Then, it was added in nila (indigo) and red-blue. In this period, Tegal batik was distributed outside such as west Java. The trader bought it on foot. Historically, it was them that present batik in Tasik and Ciamis. Besides, other new comers from central Java had participated in developing batik in this area.

In the beginning of 20th centuries, after the World War I, import unbleached plain cloth and import drug had just been known. Most of Tegal batik entrepreneurs was running out of capital. They took the basic commodity from Pekalongan on credit. And they sold it to Chinese who gave them a credit. When the economy crises occurred, the sold of Tegal batik was slowing down. It recovered from 1934 to the beginning of World War II. When Japan occupied in Indonesia, batik became sluggish anymore.

So did in Purworejo. It occurred on the same time with batik of Kebumen. Both of them came from Yogyakarta for about 21th centuries. Batik development in Purwerojo was faster than that in Kebumen. While for its production, it had the same product as Yogyakarta and Banyumas.

In Bayat, village located in the foot of Merapi Mountain, about 21 km in the east of Klaten, batik had been known for a long time ago. Surely, its history had a close relation with Surakarta palace. In Kebumen, batik had been existed for about 19th centuries. It was presented by Jogja visitors in the case of Islamic spreading. The well-known figure was Penghulu, Islamic leader, Nusjav. It was him who developed batik in Kebumen and his first settle was located in the East of Lukolo River. His heritage was a mosque. The first batik process in this town was called “Teng abang or Blambangan”.

Finally, the last process was made in Banyumas or Solo. Concerning for its pattern, it was used a turmeric whose stamp made of wooden. While the patterns were trees and kind of birds. Other material used was bengkudu tree, kemudu and nila tom.

The use of import drugs had been known around 1920. It was presented by BRI employee. For spending less time, he left finally his self product. The use of stamp had been known in 1930 presented by Purnomo from Yogyakarta. Batik regions in Kebumen were Watugarut, Tanurekso etc.

By regarding current heritages and the last history, it might be consider that batik had been known since Tarumanegara period in Tasikmalaya. One of them was tarum tree. It was served as batik process. Remain village for making batik today were Wurug, Sukapura, Mangunraja, Maronjaya and Tasikmalaya city. For a long time ago, the most crowded place was Sukapura village and Indihiang -situated on the border of Tasikmalaya city- In 18th and 19th centuries, the war of central Java kingdom occurred. It led most of the inhabitants of Tegal, Pekalongan, Banyumas and Kudus wandering to west regions and lived in Ciamis and Tasik. Most of them were batik entrepreneurs and they ran batik trade there. Hence, it was known batik production using Soga which came from central Java. Current batik production in Tasikmalaya was batik combination from Pekalongan, Tegal, Banyumas and Kudus. It had various design and color.

Batik Garut

In Ciamis, batik had been known in 19th centuries, after Diponegoro War. It was because of Diponegoro’s companion role. They had presented it and made it as a livelihood. The material used for its cloth was self weaving. For painting, it made of tree such as bengkudu and tom tree. For the pattern, it was a combination of central Java batik and local product especially garutan pattern and color. Until the 20th centuries, batik production in Ciamis had developed step by step from self demands to market distribution.

Cirebon Batik

In Cirebon, the origin of batik came from Kanoman, Kasepuhan, and Keprabonan. It had the same story as Yogyakarta and Solo Batik. However, its specific feature was flora and fauna picture. There was also beach pattern, influenced by China mind and Garuda bird, influenced by Yogya and Solo batik.

Like other regions, in Jakarta, batik had been known in 19th centuries, presented by central Java visitors. The outstanding batik area in Jakarta were Karet, Ilir and Udik dam, Kebayoran lama, Mampang prapatan as well as Tebet. Before World War I, Jakarta, especially fish market Harbor, had become interregional shopping center in Indonesia. After World War I, when stamp batik had just been known, batik production increased and batik traders looked for a new area whereas the leading textile and batik area in Jakarta were Tanah Abang (the most famous than others), Jatinegara and Jakarta city. Local batik production from Solo, Yogya, Banyumas, Ponorogo, Tulungagung, Pekalongan, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and Cirebon gathered in Tanah abang and it was sent to other region out of Java. Compared to Chinese and Arabian batik traders, Indonesia was less than others. Based on this fact, they had an initiative to establish Batik Company in Tanah abang, Jakarta.

After Word War I, batik entrepreneur was Chinese whose employee came from Pekalongan, Yogya, Solo as well as local labor. Next, after considering its process, the origin inhabitant set up batik Company whose pattern and process were adjusted by Pekalongan, Yogya, Solo, and Banyumas batik. The batik commodity used was self weaving product as well as its drugs, made of bengkudu, wooden, turmeric etc. The basic cambric became popular and its market distribution was in Tanah Abang market and surrounding. Furthermore, batik spread out in many part of the cities: Padang, west Sumatera, and other regions out of Java.

By the end of World War I, West Sumatera was one of the customers of batik from Pekalongan, Solo and Yogya. However, Hand weaving- Silungkang and plekat weaving- existed first than others.

After Japan occupation, there was lack of batik stock in Padang whereas the demands keep on increasing from day to day. The customer ordered it to their daily activities. It caused by a serious conflict between Sumatera and Java as well as Dutch blockades. Related to this matter, batik traders therefore tried to produce their own batik. By having self product and implementing sophisticated research of batik from out of Java, they took the pattern and applied in wooden as stamp tool. Batik drug used was self product made of various plants: bengkudu, turmeric, gambier, resin etc. White background had taken from the former/second hand one and hand weaving product.

In 1946, the first company appeared was in Sampan region, Padang pariaman: Bagindo Idris, Sidi, Ali, Sidi Zokaria, Sutan Salim, Sutan Syamsudin and Payakumbuh. In 1948, it was appeared Sir Waslim (from Pekalongan) and Sutan Rajab. In 1949 most of them set up Batik Company using the material made in Singapore through Padang and Pekanbaru harbor. After having open cooperation with Java, they couldn’t even run their business. Most of Padang batik had a black, yellow, red and purple color. They used Banyumasan, Indramayu, Solo and Yogya pattern. Nowadays, the pattern is better than before. However, it is much worse than that of Java. The stamp tool used is made of metal and most of its productions are sarong.

Batik in Majapahit Kingdom Period


Batik -which has been a culture in Majapahit- could be found at Mojokerto and Tulungagung. Mojokerto was a region related to Majapahit. At Tulungagung, we could find many heritages and stories. Once upon a time, it happen the fight between Majapahit and the ruler of Tulungagung, Adipati Karanglewas. He was murdered at that fight. As a result, the region was occupied by Majapahit and it brought batik culture in this region. Nowadays, batik regions in Mojokaerto are Kwali, Mojosari, Betero, Sidomulyo and Jombang. In the end of 19th centuries, there were some batik makers using the material weaved white clothe and for the batik drugs, it made of soga jambal, bengkudu, nila tom, tinggi, etc. Foreign drug had just been known after the World War I. It was sold by China trader at Mojokerto. Stamp batik and foreign drug were known at the same time. Stamp was produced in Bangil and Mojokerto. Batik entrepreneur could buy it in Porong Sidoarjo market. It was known as a crowded market –before world economy crises- whose many batik productions came from Keducangkring and Jetis Sidoarjo. When the economy crises had occurred, Mojokerto batik entrepreneur couldn’t run their business. It took place until the occupation of Japan in Indonesia. The batik trade recovered after the revolution. At that time, Mojokerto had become a colony region. The specific feature of Mojokerto batik (kalangbret) is almost similar to Yogyakarta batik – white background, light brown, and dark blue design- Although batik has been known since Majapahit, its development has just begun spreading quickly at Yogyakarta and Surakarta. It could be found by considering its design.

When bitter fight occurred between Dutch and Diponegoro troops, Kyai Mojo withdrew most of his troops. They ran a way to the East, Majan -It has been a status as Merdikan village, special district and its village headman is a kyai (Islamic teacher or Islamic leader) whose title is given hereditary. This kind of Majan batik production is a heritage of Diponegoro period.

Babaran color of Majan and Simo batik are unique. Its light red comes from bengkudu and the other ones come from tom. Many of batik entrepreneurs came from Solo. They arrived in Tulungagung in the end of 19th centuries. While the batik center, it was in Sembung. Now, some of them lived there.

In addition, there were also many batik regions called Trenggalek and other regions in Kediri – in which batik nature is household craft and its babaran is handwritten batik- Ponorogo, whose batik art has a close relation with Islamic spreading and the last kingdoms. It has been said there was Majapahit descendent in Batorokatong region, called Raden Katong (Raden Patah’s young brother) who spread Islam in Ponorogo. His current heritage is a mosque, located in East Patihan area.

The next development, there was an Islamic Boarding in Ponorogo, Tegal sari, which has been managed by Kyai Hasan Basri. Many people had known him as Kyai Agung Tegal Sari. He had become a son in law of Solo king. In this place, people learned not only Islamic religion but also constitution, war science and literature. One of the most outstanding pupils from Tegal Sari, Raden Ronggowarsito, had a great concern in literature. Batik art had just known in palace area in that time. However, not long afterward, it became down to earth in Tegalsari because Kyai Hasan Basri and his wife (the princess of Solo) followed by her companions, had moved on and lived there. They taught it to the youth. The educated youth would devote themselves in society, especially in the field of administration and religion.

The old batik area that we can find until today are in Kauman region such as East Kepatihan, Ronowijoyo, Mangunkusuman, Kertosari Setono, Cokromenggolo, Kadipaten, Nologaten, Bangunsari, Cekok, Banyudono dan Ngunut. Many years ago, drugs used in batik process were self domestic product made of various trees: Tom tree, Bengkudu tree, and Tinggi Wooden. For white material, it was also self domestic product made of Gendong weaving. Bam import white material had just been known in Indonesia approximately in the end of 19th centuries.

Stamp batik production has just been known after Word War I presented by Chinese, kwee seng in Banyumas. In the beginning of 20th centuries, batik was a leading product in Ponorogo especially on its nila color that was difficult to become discolored. This was the reason why many entrepreneurs from Banyumas and Solo provided a lot of jobs to batik entrepreneur in Ponorogo. The popularity of stamp batik had led to the present of rough batik called blue unbleached plain cloth. Then, stamp batik had become a leading product in Indonesia.

Batik History


It has a close relation with Majapahit Kingdom development and Islamic spreading in java. In many cases, most of batik development occurred in Mataram period, Solo and Yogyakarta Kingdom. Therefore, it has been known since the period of Majapahit Kingdom and it keep on improving for the next kings.

Meanwhile, in the end of 18th centuries or in the beginning of 19th centuries, batik has been dominated by Indonesian people, especially by Javanese. In the beginning of 20th centuries, they produced handwritten batik while stamp batik had just been known in 1920. Related to Islamic spreading, most of the batik shopping center was located in Islamic regions and it was used to struggle against the Dutch economy.

Batik art is a painting art on the material. It had a function to be a costume worn by the princes in the past. For the first time, it has just been produced in the palace area and it was worn by the prince, his family and his companions. Then, it was brought and processed outside because many of the companions lived out of the palace area. Not long afterward, it was imitated by the closest people and then it became a livelihood for many housewives to spend their leisure time. Finally, batik was not only worn by prince and his family but also for common people, both man and woman. Furthermore, the batik material is made by weaving. For the dye material, it came from Indonesian natural plants such as: Bengkudu tree, tinggi, soga and nila. The soda material made of ash soda while its salt made of mud.