Mangkunegaran style motif similar to the Palace of Surakarta batik, but with a yellowish brown color soga. However batik temple Mangkunegaran step forward in the creation of motifs. This is evident from the many temples Mangkunegaran motif. Mangkunegaran temple motif among others: buketan fern (Bei Madusari mother works), sapanti nata, ole–ole, revelation tumurun, Kesit barong machete, machete sondher, machetes klithik glebag chrysanthemums, lyrical cemeng (Mother works Kanjeng Mangunkusumo).
Surakarta or Solo is one of two sultanate of Java, with all the traditions and customs of the kingdom which is the center of Hindu–Javanese culture. Not only the residence of the king’s palace, but also the center of government, religion and culture are reflected in the art of the region, especially in the nature of batik: motifs, colors and usage rules. In Solo there are some specific rules on the use of batik, include: tsosial status of the wearer and special events where the batik should be used in conjunction with the hope or blessing symbolized through batik design.Solo batik designs are often associated with Hindu Javanese culture, Sawat symbol of the crown or highest power, Meru symbol of mountain or the earth, a symbol of the water dragon, symbol Birds of wind or upper world and the symbol of fire Tongues of Fire. Beberapadesain traditionally used in important events, for example: Satria Manah and Cement Chain worn during the wedding ceremony application.Design Fabrics made in workshops Panembahan length Hardjonagoro, Surakarta in the early ’80s, the combined effects of multiple patterned areas, but the overall design style and color typical of Solo. Cloth fabric is twice the length of half a meter, which is used as a formal gloves.
Yogyakarta as the capital and royal in Java, known as the heart of the art of batik. Jogja batik is very unique design that is developing a combination of several design motifs geometris.Contoh Jogja Batik is: Grompol and Nitik.
Grompol commonly used for weddings. Grompol means coming together, symbolizing the presence with all good things, such as; good fortune, happiness, children and a harmonious marriage. Nitik is a motif commonly found in Jogja. During the annual celebration of colonial (Jaarbeurs) in the Dutch colonial period, a batik producer memberinama Nitik Jaarbeurs awarded to motive.
Batik moor dominated by brown and blue colors. Another characteristic of batik is colorful moor. Tegal batik or moor it can be recognized from the image patterns or motifs rengrengan large or wide. This motif is absent from other areas that seem exclusive. Motive much adapted from a variety of flora and fauna around the lives of the people in the town of Tegal. Grudo motif (Garuda) with bright colors that show forms and motifs eagle wings Gribigan with distinctive woven bamboo shape rather dark in color. Tegal batik dress culture in Amangkurat I brought King (Sunan
Amangkurat Mas) of Kraton Surakarta. Amangkurat then along the north coast brings followers among batik artisans.
Although there are thousands of different batik designs, particular designs have traditionally been associated with traditional festivals and specific religious ceremonies. Previously, it was thought that certain cloth had mystical powers to ward off ill fortune, while other pieces could bring good luck.
Certain batik designs are reserved for brides and bridegrooms as well as their families. Other designs are reserved for the Sultan and his family or their attendants. A person’s rank could be determined by the pattern of the batik he/she wore.
In general, there are two categories of batik design: geometric motifs (which tend to be the earlier designs) and free form designs, which are based on stylized patterns of natural forms or imitations of a woven texture. Nitik is the most famous design illustrating this effect.
Certain areas are known for a predominance of certain designs. Central Javanese designs are influenced by traditional patterns and colors. Batik from the north coast of Java, near Pekalongan and Cirebon, have been greatly influenced by Chinese culture and effect brighter colors and more intricate flower and cloud designs.
High fashion designs drawn on silk are very popular with wealthy Indonesians. These exceptionally high-quality pieces can take months to create and costs hundreds of dollars.
Kawung is another very old design consisting of intersecting circles, known in Java since at least the thirteenth century. This design has appeared carved into the walls of many temples throughout Java such as Prambanan near Jogjakarta and Kediri in East Java. For many years, this pattern was reserved for the royal court of the Sultan of Jogjakarta. The circles are sometimes embellished inside with two or more small crosses or other ornaments such as intersecting lines or dots. It has been suggested that the ovals might represent flora such as the fruit of the kapok (silk cotton) tree or the aren (sugar palm).
Ceplok is a general name for a whole series of geometric designs based on squares, rhombs, circles, stars, etc. Although fundamentally geometric, ceplok can also represent abstractions and stylization of flowers, buds, seeds and even animals. Variations in color intensity can create illusions of depth and the overall effect is not unlike medallion patterns seen on Turkish tribal rugs. The Indonesian population is largely Muslim, a religion that forbids the portrayal of animal and human forms in a realistic manner. To get around this prohibition, the batik worker does not attempt to express this matter in a realistic form. A single element of the form is chosen and then that element is repeated again and again in the pattern.
Parang was once used exclusively by the royal courts of Central Java. It has several suggested meanings such as ‘rugged rock’, ‘knife pattern’ or ‘broken blade’. The Parang design consists of slanting rows of thick knife-like segments running in parallel diagonal bands. Parang usually alternated with narrower bands in a darker contrasting color. These darker bands contain another design element, a line of lozenge-shaped motifs call mlinjon. There are many variations of this basic striped pattern with its elegant sweeping lines, with over forty parang designs recorded. The most famous is the ‘Parang Rusak’ which in its most classical form consisting of rows of softly folded parang. This motif also appears in media other than batik, including woodcarving and as ornamentation on gamelan musical instruments.
Modern batik, although having strong ties to traditional batik, utilizes linear treatment of leaves, flowers and birds. These batiks tend to be more dependent on the dictates of the designer rather than the stiff guidelines that have guided traditional craftsmen. This is also apparent in the use of color that modern designers use. Artisans are no Modern Batiklonger dependent on traditional (natural) dyes, as chemical dyes can produce any color that they wish to achieve. Modern batik still utilizes canting and cap to create intricate designs.
Fashion designers such as Iwan Tirta have aggressively introduced batik into the world fashion scene. They have done much to promote the Indonesian art of batik dress, in its traditional and modern forms.
The horizon of batik is continuing to widen. While the design process has remained basically the same over the last century, the process shows great progress in recent decades. Traditionally, batik was sold in 2 1/4 meter lengths used for kain panjang or sarong in traditional dress. Now, not only is batik used as a material to clothe the human body, its uses also include furnishing fabrics, heavy canvas wall hangings, tablecloths and household accessories. Batik techniques are used by famous artists to create batik paintings which grace many homes and offices.
Fine quality handmade batik is very expensive and the production of such works is very limited. However, in a world that is dominated by machines there is an increasing interest in materials that have been handmade. Batik is one of these materials.
During your stay in Indonesia, take advantage of your time here to learn more about the fascinating world of batik. Have a batik dress or men’s business shirt made for you by a seamstress or tailor. Visit batik factories in Jogjakarta, Surakarta, Cirebon or our factory in Pekalongan to see for yourself how the intricate process is conducted or ask questions of batik artisans giving demonstrations in stores such as Sarinah, tanah abang or thamrin city in Jakarta. You will come away with sense of wonder over the time, effort and patience put into the creation of each batik cloth. You too may soon grow to love the distinctive waxy smell of batik and your batik acquisitions will provide many memories of your stay in Indonesia. Your support of the batik industry will also ensure that this art form grows to even greater peaks.
It has a close relation with Majapahit Kingdom development and Islamic spreading in java. In many cases, most of batik development occurred in Mataram period, Solo and Yogyakarta Kingdom. Therefore, it has been known since the period of Majapahit Kingdom and it keep on improving for the next kings.
Meanwhile, in the end of 18th centuries or in the beginning of 19th centuries, batik has been dominated by Indonesian people, especially by Javanese. In the beginning of 20th centuries, they produced handwritten batik while stamp batik had just been known in 1920. Related to Islamic spreading, most of the batik shopping center was located in Islamic regions and it was used to struggle against the Dutch economy.
Batik art is a painting art on the material. It had a function to be a costume worn by the princes in the past. For the first time, it has just been produced in the palace area and it was worn by the prince, his family and his companions. Then, it was brought and processed outside because many of the companions lived out of the palace area. Not long afterward, it was imitated by the closest people and then it became a livelihood for many housewives to spend their leisure time. Finally, batik was not only worn by prince and his family but also for common people, both man and woman. Furthermore, the batik material is made by weaving. For the dye material, it came from Indonesian natural plants such as: Bengkudu tree, tinggi, soga and nila. The soda material made of ash soda while its salt made of mud.